By James C. Bobrow, MD
This part underwent significant revision for the 2008-2009 variation. part eleven stories the anatomy, body structure, embryology, and pathology of the lens. It additionally covers the epidemiology of cataracts and their evaluate and administration in adults. furthermore, an summary of lens and cataract surgical procedure is equipped, issues of cataract surgical procedure are mentioned, and cataract surgical procedure in designated events is explored. comprises many new photographs.
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Additional info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 11: Lens and Cataract (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
Because vitrectomy is associated with very high rates of nuclear cataract formation, it has been suggested that the low oxygen level existing around the lens protects it from oxidative damage and that loss of the gel structure of the vitreous body increases exposure of the lens to oxygen and the risk of nuclear cataracts. CHAPTER 2: Biochemistry. Andley UP, Liang JJN, Lou ME Biochemical mechanisms of age-related cataract. In: Albert DM, Jakobiec FA, eds. Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology.
Though usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, the disorder appears with no family history in approximately 15% of cases. Marfan syndrome is believed to result from an abnormality of fibrillin, a connective tissue component. Affected individuals are tall, with arachnodactyly (Fig 4-15A) and chest wall deformities. Associated cardiac abnormalities include dilated aortic root and mitral valve prolapse. From 50% to 80% of patients with Marfan syndrome exhibit ectopia lent is (Fig 4-15B).
The result is swelling of the fibers, disruption of the normal cytoskeletal architecture, and opacification of the lens. Galactose is also a substrate for aldose reductase, producing the alcohol galactitol (dulcitol). Galactitol, however, is not a substrate for sugar alcohol dehydrogenase and thus accumulates rapidly, producing the same osmotic effects-and the same consequences-as sorbitol. Excess production of galactitol occurs in patients with inborn disorders of galactose metabolism. The patient with an inborn error of galactose metabolism is unable to utilize galactose properly and accumulates galactitol and other galactose metabolites.
2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 11: Lens and Cataract (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009) by James C. Bobrow, MD