By Neal H. Atebara, MD
Discusses present purposes of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; uncomplicated suggestions of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and make contact with lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, type of visible functionality deficits, sufferer review and coffee imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.
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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The active medium allows a large number of atoms to be energized above the ground state so that stimulated emission can occur. ). Lasers are usually named for the active medium. The medium can be a gas (argon, krypton, carbon dioxide, argon-fluoride excimer, or helium with neon), a liquid (dye), a solid (an active element supported by a crystal, such as neodymium supported by yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAGj and erbium supported by yttrium-lanthanum-fluo ride [Er :YLF]), or a semiconductor (diode).
The transverse magnification of microscope objectives. for example, is sometimes expressed by this convention. Most optical systems have a pair of nodal points (Fig 2-8). Occasionally, the nodal points overlap, appearing as a Single point, but techn ically they remai n a pair of overlapping nodal points. The nodal points are always on the optical axis and have an important property. From any object point, a unique ray passes through th e anterior nodal point. This ray emerges from the optical system along the line connecting th e posterior nodal point to the conjugate image point (Fig 2-9).
H. S-mm aperture Image plane l1 mm • T Figure 2-13 A, A smaller pinhole restricts light from a single object point to a smaller spot in the image. 8, Object points can be closer together before their images overlap, and thus the image contains more detail. This analysis ignores diffraction effects. (Illustration developed by C. T 50 em - - -.. >-- - 50 em 1 • A Kevin M. Miller, MD, and rendered by l1 mm • H. ) B CHAPTER 2: Ge ometri c Optics. 39 Point focus A Paint spread fu nction B Figure 2-14 A, Textbooks ofte n illu strate imag es produced by lense s as stigmat ic.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by Neal H. Atebara, MD