By Raymond Hickey
A Dictionary of types of English offers a complete directory of the targeted dialects and kinds of English spoken through the modern world.
- Provides a useful advent and advisor to present learn tendencies within the field
- Includes definitions either for the varieties of English and areas they characteristic, and for terms and concepts derived from a linguistic research of those varieties
- Explores very important learn concerns together with the transportation of dialects of English, the increase of ‘New Englishes’, sociolinguistic investigations of varied English-speaking locales, and the examine of language touch and change.
- Reflects our elevated expertise of worldwide sorts of English, and the advances made within the examine of types of the language in contemporary decades
- Creates a useful, informative source for college students and students alike, spanning the wealthy and various linguistic different types of the main greatly permitted language of overseas communication
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Varieties of English
3) Frequent deletion of final /l/, particularly before labials or wordfinally with auxiliaries: help [hεp], he’ll be home [hi bi hoːm]. (4) Stopping of initial /ð/ to either [d̪] (dental stop) or [d] (alveolar stop): this [d̪ɪs], there [d̪εː]. (5) In word-final position /θ/ is frequently shifted to [f] (also found in cockney English); this shift is also found for /ð/ (→ [v]) in word-internal position: bath [baːf], teeth [tiːf] brother [brʌvə]. (6) Velar nasals are realized as alveolars: She’s comin’ tomorrow.
Equally, nouns are not always marked for plural and/or possession. With personal pronouns a distinction between a dual and a plural may be found similar to that between inclusive and exclusive forms for the first person plural in tok pisin (in Papua New Guinea). Australian creoles, and perhaps Aboriginal English, may have been affected by Melanesian pidgins brought by workers on sugar plantations in Queensland in the late nineteenth century. Code switching is a characteristic of many forms of English in contact with indigenous languages.
Pronunciation (1) [æ] is raised to [ε] which leads to a push shift for the mid vowels. (2) The lax high front vowel /ɪ/, as in bit, is centralized to [ə], except initially or after /h/ (see kit-bit split). (3) Fronting of /uː/ and /ʊ/ to /y(ː)/ is not as prevalent as in other varieties because Afrikaans has phonemic /y:/ which inhibits the forward movement of high back vowels. (4) /ɑː/ may be raised and rounded to [ɔː] and hence front and unrounded as a hypercorrection in Afrikaans English: [äː].
A Dictionary of Varieties of English by Raymond Hickey
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