By Günther Ludwig

ISBN-10: 3540308326

ISBN-13: 9783540308324

Written within the culture of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this ebook goals to elucidate and formulate extra exactly the primary rules of actual theories. by way of introducing a uncomplicated descriptive language of easy shape, within which it really is attainable to formulate recorded proof, ambiguities of actual theories are refrained from up to attainable. during this method the sphere of physics that are supposed to be defined by means of a conception depends on simple ideas purely, i.e. strategies that may be defined with no idea. during this context the authors introduce a brand new suggestion of idealization and evaluation the method of getting to know new innovations. they think that, whilst the theories are formulated inside of an axiomatic foundation, strategies are available to many tough difficulties similar to the translation of actual theories, the family members among theories in addition to the advent of actual suggestions. The e-book addresses either physicists and philosophers of technology and will motivate the reader to give a contribution to the knowledge of the lasting middle of actual wisdom in regards to the actual constructions of the area.

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**Additional info for A New Foundation of Physical Theories**

**Example text**

And if, conversely, for a term T , R(x) ⇔ (x = T ) is a theorem in M T , then R(x) is functional in x in M T . In conclusion, we repeat once again that the fundamental logical axioms of an M T (as summarized in Sect. , in Chaps. 3 and 6). 4 Set Theory Given that we presuppose also the set theory, we brieﬂy turn our attention to the problem of the pose of axioms. We want especially to indicate some elements which will be signiﬁcant for the use of these axioms in a P T . The problems of the use of the set theory in the representation M T of a P T can only be dealt with later; for this reason, almost no indication on the physical meaning will be given here for the moment.

We introduce words by simple immediate demonstrations as in the following sentences: ‘this is a desk surface’, ‘this is a stone’, ‘this is a liquid’, ‘this is a rigid body’, etc. We will not describe what we allow as having directly demonstrable meaning. Physics is essentially determined by the domain which we admit as having directly demonstrable meaning. For example, we do not allow a direct meaning to words such as ‘weak’, ‘blue’, or ‘weak sound’. But in physics there are many words the meanings of which is given by pre-theories (see sect.

We have already outlined above that if A is not a theorem in M T , then it does not result inevitably that “not A” must be a theorem in M T . It may be thus that neither A nor “not A” are theorems in M T . It is only in the following way that the logic introduced by the implicit axioms described above is a normal logic: (a) If a relation A, as well as “not A,” is a theorem in M T , then each wellformed relation B (in the sense of Sect. 1) is a theorem in M T . Such an M T is contradictory and is unusable, since it does not in fact state anything.

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