By T. M. Flynn, B. W. Birmingham (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)
Invited Papers.- Cryogenics and nationwide Goals.- A assessment of the potential for Liquid-Methane gas for Supersonic Transports.- Slush and Subcooled Propellants for Lunar and Interplanetary Missions.- Thermodynamic Properties.- Equilibrium Gas-Phase Compositions of Ethane and Ethylene in Binary combinations with Helium and Neon under 150°K and a Correlation for Deviations from the Geometric suggest Combining Rule.- The Kinetics of Adsorption of Methane and Nitrogen from Hydrogen Gas.- Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of nation for Methane at Cryogenic Conditions.- a brand new Calorimeter for the actual decision of the Enthalpy of Pressurized Fluids right down to 160°R.- houses of Materials.- Simultaneous size of Young’s Modulus and Shear Modulus at Low Temperatures.- Tensile homes and Notch longevity of Groove Welds in Wrought and forged Aluminum Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures.- Low-Temperature Mechanical houses of Welded and Brazed Copper.- Superconductivity.- A excessive box Magnet Combining Superconductors with Water-Cooled Conductors.- huge Superconducting Baseball Magnet.- checking out Composite Superconductor for the LRL Baseball Magnet.- temporary reaction and balance Limits of Superconducting Composite cord Following a Flux Jump.- Flux-Flow stories and balance standards of Nb-Ti Strips.- The Transition to Current-Sharing in Composite Conductors.- balance of Internally Cooled Superconductors.- results of Nucleate Cooling Limits at the functionality of Small Ti-Nb Solenoids.- warmth Transfer.- Non-Boiling and movie Boiling warmth move to a Saturated tub of Liquid Helium.- Boiling warmth move and strain Drop of Liquid Helium-I less than pressured circulate in a Helically Coiled Tube.- Nucleate Boiling warmth move from an Oscillating Sphere in Liquid Nitrogen.- A Miniature warmth Exchanger for Simultaneous Para-Orthohydrogen Conversion and warmth Transfer.- observe on warmth Exchanger layout for Cryogenic Propellant Tanks.- A Compact Perforated-Plate warmth Exchanger.- Insulation.- Analytical versions for Airborne-Cryogenic-Insulation Thermal Performance.- evaluate of an Externally Insulated Spacecraft Dewar.- Experimental selection of Thermal lodging Coefficients.- Thermal Diffusivity of Powder Insulation.- Predictions of the whole Emissivity of Metals at Cryogenic Temperatures.- Radiative features of Cryodeposits for Room Temperature Black physique Radiation.- Fluid Dynamics.- Thermal Stratification in Closed Cryogenic Containers.- Approximate Criterion for Prediction of stream Oscillations in Supercritical Fluid warmth Exchangers.- The interplay of regulate Valves with Oscillations Generated in a wide Water to Hydrogen warmth Exchanger.- Cavitation in Liquid Cryogens.- An research of the results of Spatial, Thermal, and pace Inhomogeneities on Two-Phase, unmarried part Cryogenic Choked Flow.- Two-Phase (Liquid-Vapor), Mass-Limiting movement with Hydrogen and Nitrogen.- Instrumentation.- Cryogenic movement examine Facility of the nationwide Bureau of Standards.- Prelaunch Slush Hydrogen Loading components Affecting Instrumentation and Control.- Use of Capacitance point Gauging for Prelaunch Loading of Slush Hydrogen.- development on Cryogenic Thermocouples.- Fluid section and Temperature dimension with a unmarried Sensor.- lights in Cryogenic and Noncryogenic Fluids.- Refrigeration Systems.- An research of the Stirling-Cycle Refrigerator.- Steady-State Operation of the Idealized Vuilleumier Refrigerator.- Compact Cryogenic Thermal Regenerator Performance.- loose Displacer Refrigeration.- Dynamical results of the Rhombic force for Miniature Cooling Engines.- improvement of a realistic Thermodynamic Cycle for a Space-Borne Hydrogen Reliquefier.- A 3.6°K Reciprocating Refrigerator.- improvement of Novel gasoline Bearing Supported Cryogenic growth Turbines.- Miniature Cryogenic fridge Turboalternators.- regulate process for Temperatures and Liquid point among 4.2° and 1°K.- Closed-Cycle fridges for Hydrogen Targets.- Cryogenic Systems.- Solidified Oxygen for inhaling Space.- Slush Hydrogen Pumping features utilizing a Centrifugal-Type Pump.- attempt result of a Zero-Gravity Cryogenic section Separator.- Hydrogen Peroxide Motor Exhaust Heating to elements at Cryogenic Temperatures within the Vacuum of Space.- research of Propagation disasters of versatile Linear formed fees at Cryogenic Temperatures.- The habit of common Liquid Hydrogen aim structures lower than Simulated Failure Modes.
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Additional resources for Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1968 Cryogenic Engineering Conference Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio August 19–21, 1968
Have contributed to cryogen utilization for these vehicles. Significant analytical efforts and tests have been accomplished in these technology areas, and further studies are in progress. Technology development efforts initially emphasized the feasibility of producing, transporting, and storing subcooled and solid cryogens. Current efforts emphasize establishing ground facility and space-vehicle design criteria for effective subcooled cryogen utilization. MISSION STUDIES Efficient cryogen storage systems must be developed to accomplish advanced, lang duration space vehicle missions.
An example of the payload penalty attributed to an optimized hydrogen propellant storage system is illustrated in Fig. 2, which shows the payload penalty is 8% of the usable hydrogen with 1 atm saturated liquid, and 3% with 50% solid hydrogen . Initial subcooling of oxygen to triple-point conditions will provide a near optimum storage system. However, loading a low solid fraction of slush oxygen to compensate for environmental heating mayassure triple-point conditions. 10 TripIe Poinl OL-__- L_ _ _ _ o Liquid ~-L~~ 10 15 ___ L_ _ _ _ 20 1 Alm Liquid ~ 25 __ ~ ____ 30 ~ __ ~ 35 Initiallnternal Energy.
If both of these processes were extremely rapid, equilibrium would exist at all points in the adsorbent bed, and a plot of the adsorber outlet concentration as a function of time would be a step function. Usually, however, one or both of the mass transfer processes are relatively slow, with the result that the concentration-time (breakthrough) curve assurnes an S shape. The prediction of breakthrough curves is of considerable practical importance, since the determination of the amount of adsorbent that is unsaturated when the first trace of impurity appears at the outlet of the adsorbent bed requires a knowledge of the breakthrough curve for the system under consideration.
Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1968 Cryogenic Engineering Conference Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio August 19–21, 1968 by T. M. Flynn, B. W. Birmingham (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)